We have provided an understandings at atomic level of the Hg0 FLAG tag Peptide on Agn/TiO2 (n = 2, 4, and 8) composites by using the DFT calculations. Firstly, the optimized geometries of small Agn clusters have been explored. Then Agn clusters are deposited over the rutile TiO2 (1 1 0) surface and were optimized for finding their local minima. After that, the Hg0 adsorptions over (i) the isolated Agn clusters, (ii) the Agn/TiO2 composites, and (iii) the bare TiO2 surface were examined. From the results, adsorptions of the Hg0 over the Agn/TiO2 models are relatively stronger than those in both isolated Agn clusters and the bare TiO2, which can explain the experimental observations well. We found that the Hg0 acts as electron donor once it is adsorbed on the studied sorbents. For that reason, the strong interaction of the Hg0 atom and the Ag/TiO2 composite is an influence of electron transfer from the Hg0 to the composites. Greater electron transfer from the Hg0 promotes stronger Hg adsorption on the sorbent. In addition, we found that the Hg0 adsorption does not significantly depend on the Ag cluster size (in range of 2–8 atoms-clusters) but does depend strongly on the value of d-band center of the silver composites and amount of charge transferred from the Hg0.
Similar to FTIR and 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectrum of liquid product also showed high aliphatic and aromatic carbon content. A typical 13C NMR spectrum of liquid product obtained at 280 °C and 60 min residence time using ethanol as reaction medium Hexa His tag shown in Supplementary Fig. S1. 13C NMR provided greater detail due to their large chemical shift regions and pointed to a high aliphatic content (0–55 ppm). Around 44% of the carbon atoms resonate in the region from 0 to 55 ppm. This region is further sub divided into two regions, region from 0 to 28 ppm which is composed of short aliphatics and region from 28 to 55 ppm comprising of the long and branched aliphatics. The carbon percentage was higher in region from 0 to 28 ppm (31%) than carbon percentage in region from 28 to 55 ppm (13%). The next region of the spectrum, 55–95 ppm indicates the presence of alcohol ethers and carbohydrate sugars. Carbon percentage was very less in this region (1%). The aromatics and the olefinic compounds resonate in downfield region (95–165 ppm). The carbon percentages in this region was very high (54%). 1H NMR also showed high proton percentage in the aromatic region. FTIR and NMR (1H and 13C) indicated that lignin fraction of rice straw was decomposed to low molecular weight monomeric phenols.
CO2 removal rate (%) and CH4 amount (v/v) were investigated as a function of operating time to evaluate differences in biogas upgrade with varying mixed wavelengths ratio for the three microalgal strains (Fig. 4a–c). During the experiment, CO2 amount (v/v) decreased as CH4 amount (v/v) increased. In all mixing conditions with red and blue light for S. obliquus, the CO2 removal rate (%) was approximately 49.95%–62.31%, which is slightly higher than that Deltorphin II for C. vulgaris (43.21%–55.39%) and N. oleoabundans (40.25%–54.39%). No significant differences in biogas CO2 REs among the three microalgal strains, (P > 0.05) were found at red:blue ratios of 5:5 and 7:3 but their corresponding REs were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those at red:blue ratios of 9:1 and 1:9. Therefore, CO2 RE can be increased during photosynthesis in photoautotrophic microalgal cultures by supplying mixed wavelengths of red:blue = 5:5 and 7:3 ( Oilgae, 2010).
Recent application developed in this TAI-1 study provides a novel approach to inhibit methanogenesis in MECs. More research should be considered in future.
AcknowledgementThis study was supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜB?TAK) (Project No. 113Z589).
Duckweed; Lemna aequinoctialis; Light intensity; Photoperiod; Starch production
2.1. Duckweed strain and culture method
Lemna aequinoctialis 6000, which had the best ability to accumulate starch, was isolated from Lixian county in Hunan province by large-scale screening of more than 100 clones of duckweed distributed in 20 provinces in China ( Yu et al., 2014 and Yu et al., 2015). L. aequinoctialis 6000 was pre-cultured in a large tub (60 cm × 40 cm × 10 cm) for 2 weeks on 1/2 Schenk-Hildebrandt medium (SH) ( Schenk and Hildebrandt, 1972). The pH of the medium was adjusted to 5.80. The tub was placed into a 23 °C growth chamber with the photoperiod of 16:8 and light intensity of 80 μmol m−2 s−1 provided by wide spectrum fluorescent tubes.
The secondary flows at the bend occurs at a relatively small value of Reynolds number (Re = 1) and Knudsen number in the slip flow regime. Note that slip at the wall leads to finite momentum near the wall; this low momentum fluid reverses its direction in presence of an adverse pressure gradient near the bend, leading to an early appearance of secondary flow. These results can be compared with that of related studies in the literature. Maharudrayya et al.  noted that for a sharp bend, LCZ696 at the inner corner appears at Re of 100 while significant recirculation at the outer corner appears at Re of about 200. Xiong and Chung  noted that in the continuum regime there is no flow separation for Re < 100 rather flow separation occurs at Re = 300. Lee et al.  reported the possibility of flow separation in a 90° bend microchannel. The present results are in qualitative agreement with the numerical simulations of Agrawal et al.  where an early flow separation (Re = 2.14) was first noted in presence of wall slip. A direct comparison with these results is however not possible due to difference in the geometry (planar/rectangular cross section in the earlier works whereas circular cross section in the present work). The present results conclusively show that the flow behavior in the slip regime is substantially different than the continuum behavior, in that rarefaction leads to an early onset of flow separation.
Department of Energy’s technical targets for on board hydrogen systems. Adapted from Ref. .Storage parameter200520102015Usable specific GDC0941 from H2 (kg H2/kg)0.0450.060.09Usable energy density from H2 (kg H2/L)0.0360.0450.081Storage system cost (
China energy policy; Market-based instruments; Command and control approaches
The well-documented close relationship between GDP growth and fossil energy use and attendant carbon emission , , , ,  and  indicates that the emergence of a country as a major economic power cannot occur without increased in energy consumption and concomitant carbon emission. With one-fifth of the world’s population, China’s rise as an economic power is unprecedented in the history of human society. The conflict between economic growth and energy use and attendant carbon emission has also shattered all precedents. In a hypothetical scenario in which carbon intensity (carbon emission per unit of GDP) keeps pace with GDP growth rate, by 2030, China would be emitting as much carbon as the world as a whole is emitting today .
Even if armed with sound scientific target allocation methodology, it is not an easy task to disaggregate the overall national targets of Biotin-HPDP saving into provinces smoothly. It is well known that multilateral climate change negotiation is the main mechanism for the differentiation of international carbon emission reduction obligations, during which different political insistences are hold on by different parties with different evidences of modeling results. The experience of past two decades shows that these multilateral regimes achieve no agreement in most case and are destined to fail (Brandt and Svendsen, 2002). The practice of energy saving target allocation in China during the past two FYPs follows much similar routine as distribution of international carbon abatement responsibility. Supported by some modeling results, the final scheme accepted by provinces were achieved by negotiations, which was conducted between central government and lower-level unities as provincial government, large enterprise and different industries. The only difference between this process and international negotiation is that it has the alternative to adopt administrative instrument to push such process. Similar game happened to international experience also exist, for instance, Western China feels that it is now time for its eastern counterparts to return the favor and to allow more “development space” for western regions. Government officials from western China are actually citing the controversial concept known as “common but differentiated responsibility”—a principle that is used in international climate negotiations to distribute mitigation responsibilities between developed and developing countries. To avoid unending argument and to be more efficient, government policy will have to play a strong role to foster local efforts and interregional cooperation on this issue, at least in the near decade. In such case, the choice preference on potential would be beneficial for fully exploring the energy saving potential of high potential regions and achieving the overall reduction optimization in China. Nevertheless, extreme reduction scheme should be avoided, because too much reduction pressure imposed on a particular province will have dampening effects on the local and regional economies. At the same time, financial and technical aid may be better provided using the command and control instrument. In this way, the energy saving potential could be explored without damaging the economic development of these regions and overall reduction optimization would be achieved in China (Yi et al., 2011).